The welding’s types, applications, and invention
Welding is a process of union between two or more parts of materials where it is united using heat/pressure or both.
It is a process whereby two or more parts are connected through heat or pressure or both. It is used to weld all types of metals, thermoplastics,
Before proceeding let’s have a look, at a brief history of welding.
Welding technology is considered an ancient method of joining materials together. It began to use when human civilization was in the stone era. They found an element buried in clay that was somewhat shiny and different. Humans started experiments with it, it was used for ornaments, food utensils, and weapons.
Welding developed with the needs of human civilization and became popular as an art, but with the development of human society, this technique also intensified and took the form of modern science.
The method of joining metals together began around 4000 BC, from Egypt and its surrounding areas. It began with copper and then expanded into bronze, silver, gold, and iron. Since copper was found as an ore at that time, its use was limited to only domestic use items and hunting weapons.
Initially, the joining of metals was done through pressure welding and lap joints. Afterward, along with the discovery of other metals, new welding processes were also developed. [Referance welding history]
Types of welding Processes
Several welding and brazing types are being applied by industries along with soldering methods. These processes can be defined on the basis of the use of energy sources.
The arc process is defined as a fusion welding process wherein the heat is produced by an electric arc, generated between the electrode and base metal.
In order to obtain the desired heat for the fusion of filler materials and base metals, gas welding processes use a mixture of oxygen/air with fuel gases such as acetylene, hydrogen, propane, and butane, etc.
A resistance process is a group of welding processes that use electric energy, wherein the coalescence is produced by the heat obtained from resistance of the work to the flow of electric current in a circuit of which the work is a part and by the application of pressure.
The solid-state process is a set of welding processes wherein, it is performed with the application of pressure and at temperatures below the melting point of the parent metal. filler metal is not required in these processes.
In the thermochemical process, the desired heat is obtained by implementing the exothermic reactions,
In Radiant Energy Process, the desired heat is obtained by focusing the energy beam on the base metal.
Welding has been employed in the industry as a tool for:
Regular fabrication of automobile cars, air-crafts, refrigerators, etc.
Repair and maintenance work, such as joining broken parts, rebuilding worn-out components, etc.
The common applications are listed below:
- Aircraft Construction
Welded engine mounts, turbine frame for a jet engine, rocket motor fuel, and oxidizer tanks, ducts, fittings, cowling, components, etc.
- Automobile Construction
Arc welded car wheels, steel rear axle housing, frame side rails. automobile frame brackets, etc.
Pier construction, Shop and field assembly of lengths, etc.Section lengths.
Column base plates, trusses, Erections of structure, etc.
- Pressure vessels and Tanks
Clad and Lined steel plates, shell construction joining of the nozzle to the shell, etc.
- Storage Tanks
Oil gas and water storage tank
- Rail Road Equipment
Locomotive, Underframe, air receiver, engine.Front and rear hoods, etc.Front and rear hoods, etc.
- Pipings and pipelines
Rolled plate piping, open pipe joints, oil, gas, and gasoline pipelines, etc.
Shell frame, deck beams, and bulkhead stiffeners. girders to shells.Bulkhead webs to plating, etc.
Apart from these, welding is used in many other fields such as:
Trucks and trailers.Machine tool frames, cutting tools, and dies.Household and office furniture.Earthmoving machinery and cranes.