Welding positions: Weld Slope and Rotation

Welding Positions, Weld Slope and Rotation

Weldin positions

Topic covered

welding positions and symbols are an important criterion that determines the weld quality. It is also an essential variable in WPS, if we change the position of welding then the WPS will be also changed for a particular position.

Different welding positions are used at different job locations according to site facilities. Different welding positions.

Concept of welding positions

Due to the prevalence of limited welding processes, early in welding history, there was no specific concept of welding position. With the development of welding techniques, policies and procedures related to it also evolved. Now, techniques have been developed to allow welding in any position. But still, some welding processes present a challenge for all welding positions, while in some processes, welding is possible in all positions.

Welding position

Welding position refers to the combination of position and angle used for joining the metals to their specific position.

Types of welding positions

If you are doing any work related to welding, then it is very important for you to know the welding position. There are four different welding positions that can be defined as follows:

  • Flat
  • Horizontal
  • Vertical and
  • Overhead position

It varies slightly in plate and pipe welding positions. numbers and alphabetical letters are used to clearly define the weld position, such as G for groove joint and F for fillet joint, while 1,2,3,4,5, etc. indicate weld position.

Different welding positions of plates

According to ASME Section 9(Boiler and Pressure Code) QW 461.3, the Groove Weld Position for Plates is described.

Groove welding positions for plate

There are different positions for groove welding like 1G,2G,3G, and 4G.

Froove welding positions

1G flat welding position

1G means flat weld position (also known as down hand position)

Flat weld position In this position, welding is performed by placing two plates on a flat surface. This is a relatively easy position where the molten metal is drawn in a downward position.

2G, Horizontal welding position

Here, 2 means horizontal, and “G” refer to groove weld, In the case of welding, this position is slightly more difficult than the flat weld position and requires a skilled welder.

Here the welding axis should be mounted in a horizontal plane or almost in a horizontal plane. As shown in the figure, the two plates are assembled and the welding axis is placed in a horizontal position, such a position is called the 2G horizontal position.

3G vertical position

In the vertical position, the weld axis and the plate axis are kept in the vertical position As shown in the example, both the weld axis and the plate axis are located in a vertical position.

When welding in a vertical position, the molten metal gets pulled down due to the force of gravity, due to which the weld metal starts to solidify in one place. To overcome this, welding is done by the up and down wave method i.e. uphill and the downhill wave is used.

4G Overhead welding Position

This position is relatively difficult and complicated, in which the welder is performed from below the welding jab i.e. welding is performed above the head.

Fillet weld positions of plates

As per ASME Section 9 QW 461.5 there are 1F,2F,3F,AND 4F for plates.

Fillet weld  plates chart
plate welding position chart

1F flat position

Here also, 1 indicates the flat position and F shows fillet weld, The position of the plate in the “1F” weld position is given a 45-degree inclination. At the time of weld metal deposition, it is drawn in a downward direction.

2F Horizontal Position

Here also “2” means horizontal and “F” refers to fillet, in this position the weld axis lies in a horizontal position.

3F Vertical Position

Here 3 means vertical and F means fillet in this the plate axis and weld axis lie in a vertical position and both uphill and downhill positions are used to perform welding.

4F Over Head Position

In the 4f welding position,4 stands for Horizontal, and F stands for Fillet in which the weld axis lies in the Horizontal plane and the welder performs the weld from the bottom of the job.

Groove Pipe Welding Positions

groove pipe welding position
welding positions

The weld position of the pipe is slightly different from the plate. ASME QW 461.4 describes the different welding positions of pipes. According to ASME QW.461.4, the welding positions chart for pipe are as follows:

1G Weld Position

In this position, the pipe is kept in the Horizontal position, and welding is performed by rotating the pipe slowly and the weld is in a flat position flat i.e. the position of the welding operator is fixed, and the pipe is rotated slowly. This is an easy position for welding.

2G welding position

welding positions chart
groove pipe weld positions chart

In this, the position of the pipe is on the vertical axis and the position of welding is on the horizontal axis. To complete this type of welding, the welder has to do welding by rotating the side of the pipe.

5G weld position

It is similar to 1G but in this, the pipe is in a fixed state and the axis of the pipe is in a horizontal state, in which both uphill and downhill methods are used to perform welding.

6G welding Position (Include Position)

In this position the axis of the pipe is inclined That is, it is given a 45-degree slope, in this position the welder performing welding has to do welding by rotating around the pipe, This is a critical position, it requires a skilled welder. The welder who performs this welding is considered qualified for all positions.

Multiple position 6GR ( Restriction )

The welding position, 6 GR, is a test position with a restriction plate on one side of the weld bevel, which is around the circumference of the pipe, to restrict the angle of the electrode or filler wire in the weld groove. In this position, the pipe is inclined at an angle of 45 degrees. This position is intended to create the toughest weld conditions for certification tests.

Fillet welding positions for pipe

The fillet welding position of the pipe differs slightly from the plate. As per ASME QW461.6, there are 1F, 2F, 2FR, 4F, and 5F for pipe fillet welds.

IF Flat Weld Position

The plate and the pipe are held in a 45-degree inclined position, in this position, slowly it will continue to rotate according to the welding. The position of welding will be fixed, that is, the welding will continue to be done in the flat position on the upper surface.

2F welding position

In this position, the pipe and plate or pipe and pipe are placed in a vertical position to join together. Here the position of the pipe is fixed and the axis of the weld is horizontal, the welder performs the weld by moving around the pipe.

2FR welding position

2FR position is different from 2F where the axis of the pipe to pipe or pipe to plate is horizontal. To complete this joint, the pipe is slowly rotated according to the welding and the position of the welder remains fixed, he keeps welding from one side.

4F welding position Position

This position is similar to the 4F position of the plate, in which the welder does the welding from under the job, that is, the welding is in the overhead position.

5F welding positions

In this position, the pipe is placed on the horizontal axis, and it is fixed and the welder does the welding by revolving around the pipe.

Welding position: Weld Slope and Rotation
Weld Slope and Rotation

Weld Slope and Rotation

Weld Slope

The angle between the Harizentl reference line (X-axis) and the line of the root is called the weld slope.

Welding rotation

The angle divided between the line coming out from the root side and the reference line coming out from the side of the weld face is called weld rotation.

Related links>>> About welding


Weldin position