Welding Positions, Weld Slope and Rotation
- What Is a Welding Position?
- What are the 4 welding positions?
- What is 1F 2F 3F 4F welding?
- What do 1G 2G 3G and 4G mean in welding?
- Concept of welding positions
- Groove welding positions for plate
- Fillet weld positions of plates
- Groove Pipe Welding Positions
- Fillet welding positions for pipe
- Weld Slope and Rotation
welding positions and symbols are an important criterion that determines the weld quality. It is also an essential variable in WPS, if we change the position of welding then the WPS will be also changed for a particular position.
Different welding positions are used at different job locations according to site facilities. Different welding positions.
Concept of welding positions
Due to the prevalence of limited welding processes, early in welding history, there was no specific concept of welding position. With the development of welding techniques, policies and procedures related to it also evolved. Now, techniques have been developed to allow welding in any position. But still, some welding processes present a challenge for all welding positions, while in some processes, welding is possible in all positions.
Welding position refers to the combination of position and angle used for joining the metals to their specific position.
Types of welding positions
If you are doing any work related to welding, then it is very important for you to know the welding position. There are four different welding positions that can be defined as follows:
- Vertical and
- Overhead position
It varies slightly in plate and pipe welding positions. numbers and alphabetical letters are used to clearly define the weld position, such as G for groove joint and F for fillet joint, while 1,2,3,4,5, etc. indicate weld position.
Different welding positions of plates
According to ASME Section 9(Boiler and Pressure Code) QW 461.3, the Groove Weld Position for Plates is described.
Groove welding positions for plate
There are different positions for groove welding like 1G,2G,3G, and 4G.
1G flat welding position
1G means flat weld position (also known as down hand position)
Flat weld position In this position, welding is performed by placing two plates on a flat surface. This is a relatively easy position where the molten metal is drawn in a downward position.
2G, Horizontal welding position
Here, 2 means horizontal, and “G” refer to groove weld, In the case of welding, this position is slightly more difficult than the flat weld position and requires a skilled welder.
Here the welding axis should be mounted in a horizontal plane or almost in a horizontal plane. As shown in the figure, the two plates are assembled and the welding axis is placed in a horizontal position, such a position is called the 2G horizontal position.
3G vertical position
In the vertical position, the weld axis and the plate axis are kept in the vertical position As shown in the example, both the weld axis and the plate axis are located in a vertical position.
When welding in a vertical position, the molten metal gets pulled down due to the force of gravity, due to which the weld metal starts to solidify in one place. To overcome this, welding is done by the up and down wave method i.e. uphill and the downhill wave is used.
4G Overhead welding Position
This position is relatively difficult and complicated, in which the welder is performed from below the welding jab i.e. welding is performed above the head.
Fillet weld positions of plates
As per ASME Section 9 QW 461.5 there are 1F,2F,3F,AND 4F for plates.
1F flat position
Here also, 1 indicates the flat position and F shows fillet weld, The position of the plate in the “1F” weld position is given a 45-degree inclination. At the time of weld metal deposition, it is drawn in a downward direction.
2F Horizontal Position
Here also “2” means horizontal and “F” refers to fillet, in this position the weld axis lies in a horizontal position.
3F Vertical Position
Here 3 means vertical and F means fillet in this the plate axis and weld axis lie in a vertical position and both uphill and downhill positions are used to perform welding.
4F Over Head Position
In the 4f welding position,4 stands for Horizontal, and F stands for Fillet in which the weld axis lies in the Horizontal plane and the welder performs the weld from the bottom of the job.
Groove Pipe Welding Positions
The weld position of the pipe is slightly different from the plate. ASME QW 461.4 describes the different welding positions of pipes. According to ASME QW.461.4, the welding positions chart for pipe are as follows:
1G Weld Position
In this position, the pipe is kept in the Horizontal position, and welding is performed by rotating the pipe slowly and the weld is in a flat position flat i.e. the position of the welding operator is fixed, and the pipe is rotated slowly. This is an easy position for welding.
2G welding position
In this, the position of the pipe is on the vertical axis and the position of welding is on the horizontal axis. To complete this type of welding, the welder has to do welding by rotating the side of the pipe.
5G weld position
It is similar to 1G but in this, the pipe is in a fixed state and the axis of the pipe is in a horizontal state, in which both uphill and downhill methods are used to perform welding.
6G welding Position (Include Position)
In this position the axis of the pipe is inclined That is, it is given a 45-degree slope, in this position the welder performing welding has to do welding by rotating around the pipe, This is a critical position, it requires a skilled welder. The welder who performs this welding is considered qualified for all positions.
Multiple position 6GR ( Restriction )
The welding position, 6 GR, is a test position with a restriction plate on one side of the weld bevel, which is around the circumference of the pipe, to restrict the angle of the electrode or filler wire in the weld groove. In this position, the pipe is inclined at an angle of 45 degrees. This position is intended to create the toughest weld conditions for certification tests.
Fillet welding positions for pipe
The fillet welding position of the pipe differs slightly from the plate. As per ASME QW461.6, there are 1F, 2F, 2FR, 4F, and 5F for pipe fillet welds.
IF Flat Weld Position
The plate and the pipe are held in a 45-degree inclined position, in this position, slowly it will continue to rotate according to the welding. The position of welding will be fixed, that is, the welding will continue to be done in the flat position on the upper surface.
2F welding position
In this position, the pipe and plate or pipe and pipe are placed in a vertical position to join together. Here the position of the pipe is fixed and the axis of the weld is horizontal, the welder performs the weld by moving around the pipe.
2FR welding position
2FR position is different from 2F where the axis of the pipe to pipe or pipe to plate is horizontal. To complete this joint, the pipe is slowly rotated according to the welding and the position of the welder remains fixed, he keeps welding from one side.
4F welding position Position
This position is similar to the 4F position of the plate, in which the welder does the welding from under the job, that is, the welding is in the overhead position.
5F welding positions
In this position, the pipe is placed on the horizontal axis, and it is fixed and the welder does the welding by revolving around the pipe.
Weld Slope and Rotation
The angle between the Harizentl reference line (X-axis) and the line of the root is called the weld slope.
The angle divided between the line coming out from the root side and the reference line coming out from the side of the weld face is called weld rotation.
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