WELDING STANDARDS, A review:
The welding standards have been in use for a long time. It mainly developed in 1898, when A group of scientists and engineers, led by Charles Dudley, formed ASTM in Originally called the “American Society for Testing Materials”
In later it expanded and in 1902 it was renamed as “American Society for Testing and Materials”.
The American Welding Society (AWS) was established in 1919 as a non-profit organization for the development of science, technology, and application of welding and associated joining and cutting processes, including welding, soldering and thermal spraying.
WELDING STANDS SYSTEM
The development and expansion of the welding process were not only in the United States, but in various countries of the world, the field of welding grew rapidly and developed many standards, like:
- IS System (Indian standards)
- BS System (British standards )
- AWS System (American standards)
The American Welding Society traces its roots to World War 1st when the process of joining a developed metal for military equipment began to take place in competing countries. Welding suddenly became very necessary to increase the war effort. To ensure that the industry took advantage of this technology.
At that time, the 28th President of the United States, Woodrow Wilson, Harvard professor, Called Adams to chair the Welding Committee of the Emergency Fleet Corp.
The welding process performed well in wartime and prompted Adams to merge the Emergency Fleet Corp’s Welding Committee and the National Welding Council into a new organization in 1919 with the aim of bringing industry leaders together. On March 28, 1919, the American Welding Society was established.
Welding standards (AWS)
|AWS A2.4||Standard symbols for welding, brazing, and non-destructive examination|
|AWS A3.0||Standard welding terms and definitions|
|AWS A5.1||Specification for carbon steel electrodes for shielded metal arc welding|
|AWS A5.18||Specification for carbon steel electrodes and rods for gas shielded arc welding|
|AWS B1.10||Guide for the nondestructive examination of welds|
|AWS B2.1||Specification for Welding Procedure and Performance Qualification|
|AWS D1.1||Structural welding (steel)|
|AWS D1.2||Structural welding (aluminum)|
|AWS D1.3||Structural welding (sheet steel)|
|AWS D1.4||Structural welding (reinforcing steel)|
|AWS D1.5||Bridge welding|
|AWS D1.6||Structural welding (stainless steel)|
|AWS D1.7||Structural welding (strengthening and repair)|
|AWS D1.8||Structural welding seismic supplement|
|AWS D1.9||Structural welding (titanium)|
|AWS D3.6R||Underwater welding (Offshore 7 inland pipelines)|
|AWS D8.1||Automotive spot welding|
|AWS D8.6||Automotive spot welding electrodes supplement|
|AWS D8.7||Automotive spot welding recommendations supplement|
|AWS D8.8||Automotive arc welding (steel)|
|AWS D8.9||Automotive spot weld testing|
|AWS D8.14||Automotive arc welding (aluminum)|
|AWS D9.1||Sheet metal welding|
|AWS D10.10||Heating practices for pipe and tube|
|AWS D10.11||Root pass welding for pipe|
|AWS D10.12||Pipe welding (mild steel)|
|AWS D10.13||Tube brazing (copper)|
|AWS D10.18||Pipe welding (stainless steel)|
|AWS D11.2||Welding (cast iron)|
|AWS D14.1||Industrial mill crane welding|
|AWS D14.3||Earthmoving & agricultural equipment welding|
|AWS D14.4||Machinery joint welding|
|AWS D14.5||Press welding|
|AWS D14.6||Rotating Elements of Equipment|
|AWS D15.1||Railroad welding|
|AWS D15.2||Railroad welding practice supplement|
|AWS D16.1||Robotic arc welding safety|
|AWS D16.2||Robotic arc welding system installation|
|AWS D16.3||Robotic arc welding risk assessment|
|AWS D16.4||Robotic arc welder operator qualification|
|AWS D17.1||Aerospace fusion welding|
|AWS D17.2||Aerospace resistance welding|
|AWS D18.1||Hygienic tube welding (stainless steel)|
|AWS D18.2||Stainless steel tube discoloration guide|
|AWS D18.3||Hygienic equipment welding|
The BSI Group was founded in 1901 under the leadership of James Mansergh as the Engineering Standards Committee, James Mansberg was a civil engineer. He first made his career in the rail network. The aim of the establishment of the BSI Group was to standardize the number and type of steel classes to make British manufacturers more efficient and more competitive.
Welding was widely used in Britain during the war period and the use of welding was also demonstrated in the repair and construction of ships. Over time it was developed to cover many aspects of engineering including quality systems, safety, and security. Britain mainly used welding, to build ships, with fully welded hull construction and repair that time
BRITISH WELDING STANDARDS
BSI welding standards cover specifications, procedures, and tests for use by welders, quality controllers, and manufacturers.
The following are the most common industries using welding standards:
• Oil & Gas ,Power ,Aerospace ,Engineering & Fabrication ,Automotive , Rail ,Shipbuilding ,Defense Off-Highway , Electronics , Medical , Equipment, consumables & materials , Nuclear ,Structural Steel & Construction
BRITISH STANDARDS SYSTEM ( BS)
General welding including arc, stud and aerospace Definitions & Symbols for welding Destructive Testing of welds Electric arc welding equipment Gas welding and cutting appliances Brazing and braze welding Pipework welding Resistance welding Qualification of welding personnel and procedures Acceptance levels for flaws in welds Welding consumables Health & Safety Prefabrication of primers Welding of steel for concrete enforcement & stainless steel Non-Destructive Testing including ultrasonic, radiographic, guided wave, etc. like:
BS EN 1011 Series – Welding guidelines
BS EN ISO 5817 -Welding in steel – quality levels
BS EN ISO 3834 Series – quality for welding
BS EN ISO 9013- Thermal cutting. Classification of thermal cuts.
BS EN ISO 3281 -Gas welding equipment. Rubber hoses for welding, cutting and allied processes
BS EN 13622- Gas welding equipment. Terminology. Terms used for gas welding equipment
BS EN ISO 15614 Series. Specification and qualification of welding procedures for metallic materials. Welding procedure tests. BS EN 287-1 Qualification test of welders. Fusion welding – Steels BS EN ISO 9606 Series. Qualification test of welders. Fusion welding BS EN ISO 14731 Welding coordination. Tasks and responsibilities BS EN ISO 14732 Specification and qualification of welding procedures for metallic materials. General rules.
BS EN ISO 17672 Brazing. Filler materials BS EN 14324 Brazing. Guidance on the application of brazed joints BS EN 13134 Brazing. Procedure approval. BS EN 13585 Qualification test of brazers and brazing operators
BS EN ISO 2553 Welding and allied processes. Symbolic representation of drawings. Welded joints BS 499-1 Welding terms and symbols. Glossary for welding, brazing and thermal cutting BS EN ISO 4063 Welding and allied processes. Nomenclature of processes and reference numbers
BS 4515-1 Specification for welding of steel pipelines on land and offshore – Carbon and carbon-manganese steel pipelines BS 4515-2 Specification for welding of steel pipelines on land and offshore – Duplex stainless steel pipelines BS 2633 Specification for Class I arc welding of ferritic steel pipework for carrying fluids BS 2971 Specification
for class II arc welding of carbon steel pipework for carrying fluids
BS 7910 Guide to methods for assessing the acceptability of flaws in metallic structures BS 7608 Code of practice for fatigue design and assessment of steel structures.
BS EN ISO 14341 Welding consumables. Wire electrodes and weld deposits for gas shielded metal arc welding of nonalloy and fine grain steels. Classification BS EN ISO 14343 Welding consumables. Wire electrodes, strip electrodes, wires, and rods for arc welding of stainless and heat-resisting steels. Classification BS EN ISO 2560 Welding consumables. Covered electrodes for manual metal arc welding of non-alloy and fine grain steels. Classification BS EN ISO 14175 Welding consumables. Gases and gas mixtures for fusion welding and allied processes
BS 7670 Steel nuts and bolts for resistance projection welding – Specification for welding of weld nuts and weld bolts BS 1140 Specification for resistance spot welding of uncoated and coated low carbon steel
BS EN 60974 Series. Arc welding equipment. BS EN 50504 Validation of arc welding equipment BE EN ISO 17652-2 Test for shop primers in relation to welding and allied processes BS EN ISO 17660 Series. Welding of reinforcing steel Welding of stainless steel – Key standards BS EN 1011-3 Arc welding of stainless steels – Recommendations BS EN 13067 Qualification testing of welders – welded assemblies BS EN 1778 Characteristics for welded thermoplastic constructions PD CEN TR 16862 responsibilities, knowledge, skills and competence BS EN 12814 Series. Testing of welded joints New work: Welding of thermoplastic molded components & Specification of thermal joining processes.
Today, welding technology has taken the form of a well-organized science, starting from an art and it is hoped that in the future, Welding will become increasingly automated as it is integrated throughout manufacturing design and coordinated with improved systems. In the future, welding will be an important part of the entire manufacturing cycle…….